26th Jumādal-Ākhirah 1442 AH ~ Monday 8th February 2021
True Appreciation of Rajab
By Shaykhul-Hadīth, Hadrat Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh
With the advent of Rajab, the seventh month of the Islamic calendar, Muslims remember the great miracle of the Beloved Nabī of Allāh ta‘ālā, the Mi‘rāj, which is commonly believed to have taken place in this month.During this miracle, Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam travelled with his body and soul from Makkah Mukarramah to Baytul-Maqdis, and from there to the seven heavens and beyond and returnedall in a split second.
The first part of the journey, from Makkah Mukarramah to Al-Masjidul-Aqsā, is called the Isrā and is mentioned in the Glorious Qur’ān. The second part of the journey, from Al-Masjidul-Aqsā to the heavens and beyond, is known as the Mi‘rāj. The great Mufassir ‘Allāmah Ibn Kathīr rahimahullāh has enumerated twenty-five Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum who have narrated this second part of the journey from Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam.
With regards to Mi‘rāj and the month of Rajab, let us keep the following points in mind:
• Auspicious nights such as Laylatul-Qadr, Laylatul-Barā’ah and Laylatul-Jumu‘ah are full of virtue and blessing, but the difference between them and the night of Mi‘rāj is that this night was prominent in blessings only on the particular night when Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam made this blessed journey. The blessedness and prominence does not return every year. Therefore, to make special arrangements of any sort or to engage in ‘ibādah during this night, assuming it to be blessed, is baseless. There is no record of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam or the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum celebrating the night of Mi‘rāj.
• This great miracle is commonly believed to have taken place on the 27th night of the Islamic month of Rajab. However, the ‘Ulamā hold differing opinions about the exact date.
Hāfiz Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalānī rahimahullāh, the commentator of Sahīhul-Bukhārī, has quoted more than ten different opinions for the possible date of Mi‘rāj. If this night was meant to be observed and spent in ‘ibādah, there would have been no difference amongst the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum, for their ‘ibādah would have clearly defined the time of occurrence.
• The incident of Mi‘rāj is truly an extraordinary event and a blessing not bestowed upon any other prophet, angel or other creation of Allāh ta‘ālā, neither before nor after. The correct way of truly celebrating and appreciating this great event is to remember the very precious gift that Allāh ta‘ālā sent for us on that night i.e. salāh. The performance of the five daily salāh is the Mi‘rāj for the believers, as through ṣalāh they receive the honour of conversing with Allāh ta‘ālā. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said:
A faithful believer, while in salāh, converses privately with his Rabb… (Al-Bukhārī)
Allāh ta‘ālā says in a Al-Hadīthul-Qudsī:
‘I have divided the salāh (Sūratul-Fātihah) into two halves between Me and My slave; half is for Me and half is for My slave, and My slave will receive whatever he asks for.’ Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said: Read (Sūratul-Fātihah)! (Because when) the slave says: ‘All Praise is for Allāh, the Rabb of all the worlds,’ Allāh ta‘ālā says: ‘My slave has praised Me.’ He (the slave) says: ‘The Most-Beneficent, the Most-Merciful,’ Allāh ta‘ālā says: ‘My slave has lauded Me.’ The slave says: ‘Owner of the Day of Recompense,’ Allāh ta‘ālā says: ‘My slave has glorified Me, and this coming verse is between Me and My slave.’ The slave says: ‘You (Alone) do we worship and from You (Alone) do we seek help,’ Allāh says: ‘This is between Me and My slave, and My slave will receive whatever he asks for.’ The slave says: ‘Guide us to the Straight Path, the path of those whom You have favoured, not of those who have incurred Your Displeasure nor of those who have gone astray,’ Allāh ta‘ālā says: ‘These are for My slave, and My slave will receive whatever he asks for.’ (Abū Dāwūd)
By understanding the position of salāh in Islām, one can conclude that only that person who values the gift of Mi‘rāj can truly claim to have understood Mi‘rāj.
When the month of Rajab would arrive, Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam used to make the following du‘ā:
Allāhumma barik lana fī rajabin wa sha’bān, wa balighnā Ramadān.
O Allāh! Grant us barakah in the months of Rajab and Sha‘bān and make us reach the month of Ramadān. (Al-Mu‘jamul-Awsat)
Therefore, it is desirable to recite this du‘ā on the advent of Rajab. Upon the commencement of Rajab, everyone should focus their attention on making preparations for the blessed month of Ramadān. This preparation is a spiritual one and entails fulfilling one’s duties to Allāh ta‘ālā, especially in areas where one is lacking.
Preparing for Ramadān from the month of Rajab is just like getting into a car and putting it in first gear. Begin to observe the compulsory and obligatory acts from now so that by the time Ramadān sets in, you are in fifth gear practising many optional acts of worship as well.
May Allāh ta‘ālā give us the tawfīq to practise upon His entire Dīn according to the teachings of our Beloved Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, and may He enable us to start making preparations for the month of Ramadān from now. Āmīn.
Extracted from ‘Inspirations’ (Part 1)
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16th Jumādal-Ākhirah 1442 AH ~ Friday 29th January 2021
By Shaykhul-Hadīth, Hadrat Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh
Allāh ta‘ālā has full control over the financial situation of each and every person. Whether a person is well off or struggling to make ends meet, this is all decreed by Allāh ta‘ālā.
For those struggling financially, taking a loan is a way of alleviating financial difficulty. However, one should try his utmost to avoid taking loans as they can lead to many ills. This is why Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam would make the following du‘ā:
اَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْمَأْثَمِ وَالْمَغْرَمِ
O Allāh! I seek refuge in You from sins and debt.
When Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam was asked as to why he frequently sought refuge in Allāh ta‘ālā from being in debt, he said, “Indeed, when a person incurs a debt, he will lie when he speaks and he will break promises whenever he makes them.” (Al-Bukhārī, Muslim) It is evident from the hadīth that after taking a loan, if a person is unable to repay on time, he will resort to lying and breaking promises.
As loans are often taken from family and friends, if there are delays in repaying or fulfilling promises, it will eventually lead to disputes that will destroy family ties and friendships. This point is captured in an Arabic saying:
الْقَرْضُ مِقْرَاضُ الْمَحَبَّةِ
Loans are the scissors of love.
Therefore, one should always try to avoid taking loans. However, our Dīn has made taking loans permissible for situations when one has no other choice. If one has to resort to taking loans they should keep the following points in mind:
• The option of taking a loan is only for those who are in dire need. It is not appropriate for a person to take a loan just to fulfil one’s desires, for example spending on holidays, expensive cars and unnecessary house extensions.
• The loan arrangements should be in complete conformity with the rules and injunctions of Dīn. Loans should not be taken from interest-based sources nor have impermissible conditions.
• One should have a genuine and sincere intention to repay the loan as the assistance of Allāh ta‘ālā will be with him. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has said:
One who takes the money of people with the intention of repaying it, Allāh ta‘ālā will repay it on his behalf. (Al-Bukhārī)
This means that Allāh ta‘ālā will create the means and grant barakah in his sustenance, to enable him to repay the debt.
• One should make every effort to repay the loan on time. If one is unable to do so, the creditor should be informed and a polite request made for extra time.
• One should refrain from unnecessary spending whilst being in debt, as this will result in delays in repaying the loan.
• One should make a record of the loan, whether it is large or small, so that the loan and its amount are not forgotten. This will save disputes in the future.
• If one has not paid off a loan before his death then he should make a provision in his will for its repayment. If he passes away without paying off the loan or making a bequest, he will be questioned in the Court of Allāh ta‘ālā.
Those who have the means should support those who are in need by giving loans. Allāh ta‘ālā grants extra wealth to people so they can help others who are in need. Therefore, those who have been blessed with more than their needs should spend as much as possible in good causes; one such good cause is giving loans.
Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said: “On the night of Mi‘rāj, I saw written on the door of Jannah, ‘(The reward of) Sadaqah is ten times and (the reward of giving a loan) is eighteen times.’ I asked, ‘O Jibra’īl! Why is giving a loan better than sadaqah?’ He said, ‘Because the beggar may ask and already have, whilst the one asking for a loan only asks when in need.’” (Ibn Mājah)
After giving a loan, if a situation arises where the debtor is finding it difficult to repay on time, the creditor should extend the time for repayment. Allāh ta‘ālā says:
If he (the debtor) is in financial difficulty, then allow him grace until a time of ease (when he will be able to pay back easily)… (2:280)
Even better than extending the time, is waiving the repayment of the loan. If the loan is of such an amount that waiving it completely will not bring any difficulty upon the lender, then it is better to do so. Allāh ta‘ālā says:
…and that you forgo it as charity is much better for you, if you really knew. (2:280)
And for those who forgive others and waive their debts, Allāh ta‘ālā will definitely be merciful towards them on the Day of Qiyāmah. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has said:
Allāh will grant a place in His shade to that person who grants respite to a poor person (in the repayment of a debt) or cancels the debt (partly or altogether). (Muslim)
Managing expenditure to avoid debts
Those who have been granted barakah in their wealth should try their utmost to ensure a situation does not arise whereby they are forced into taking loans. One method of doing so is by controlling expenditure so that it is in accordance to our income. It should not be the case that our expenditure exceeds our income, thereby taking us into debt.
Hadrat Muftī Muhammad Shafī‘ rahimahullāh and Hadrat Mawlānā Masīhullāh Khān rahimahullāh would say: “Income is not in our control; but expenditure is, so what is not in our control should be based on what is in our control.”
Nowadays, people just spend without any consideration of their income. This is incorrect. There is a saying in English, “Stretch (one’s) legs according to the coverlet (bedspread).” If one stretches his legs more than his bedspread, he will feel cold, but if he stretches according to the size of the bedspread he will remain comfortable. Similarly, if we let our expenditure go beyond our income, we will fall into debt, and if we limit our expenditure according to our income, we will always remain financially stable.
The reason why many people complain about their financial circumstances is the fact that they spend on things they do not need. If we analyse our weekly shopping for example, we will realise that 20-30% of our purchases are unnecessary. Why should one who is in dire circumstances be spending £10-£15 a week on luxuries like chocolates, sweets or soft drinks? Many of us come across items which are on offer e.g. “buy one, get one free,” and we immediately purchase these items thinking that we are getting a good deal. However, the reality is that most of the time we are not in need of even the one item we are paying for.
This is why we must make a list of the things we need before we go shopping and not think about it whilst we are there. Make a list and then only buy what is on the list, so that we can avoid unnecessary expenditure.
In summary, we must be grateful to Allāh ta‘ālā for the wealth that He has given us. This gratitude demands that we take care of it and not squander it here and there, so that we become compelled to take loans. If a situation arises where we must take a loan, then we should keep in mind the points that have been mentioned above.
May Allāh ta‘ālā grant us the ability to act upon these advices. Āmīn.
Extracted from Riyāḍul Jannah, Vol. 28 No. 2, Feb 2019
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By Shaykhul-Hadīth, Hadrat Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Innumerable Favours of Allāh ta‘ālā
Allāh ta‘ālā states,
If you were to enumerate the Favours of Allāh, you would not be able to count them. Surely, Allāh is Ever-Forgiving, Most-Merciful. (16:18)
Allāh ta‘ālā has bestowed us with so many bounties that our minds are unable to encompass them and we would never be able to enumerate them. Rather, often we fail to realise a bounty to be a blessing being showered upon us. Furthermore, many times we regard a certain bounty to be an adversity!
Illness – a Bounty from Allāh ta‘ālā
Illnesses have always been around and will continue to be. Various forms of illnesses are prevalent throughout the world. At times people become ill in large numbers; the current Coronavirus pandemic being a prime example of this. It would be unintelligent to believe that we can completely eradicate every illness and have an ‘illness free’ world. However, as Muslims we need to understand what our thinking should be with regards to illnesses; we need to contemplate and realise whether illnesses are in reality adversities or actually blessings in disguise.
Generally, health is perceived to be a bounty from Allāh ta‘ālā and rightly so. However, illness is also a bounty from Allāh ta‘ālā. Fundamentally, health and illness are no different for a believer; both are a bounty and blessing from Allāh ta‘ālā. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has stated,
How wonderful is the situation of a believer! Every situation of his is ‘khayr’ (goodness) for him, and this is for no one except the believer; if he finds himself in a favourable situation, he expresses gratitude and this is good for him; and if he is afflicted with adversity, he exercises patience and this is good for him. (Muslim)
Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has explained in this Hadīth that both situations of adversity and ease are ‘khayr’. Accordingly, a believer’s attitude should be that he does not act according to circumstances, but rather according to his objective, i.e. the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā. Therefore, in reality, no situation should be adverse for him because his focus will be to acquire Divine Pleasure by remaining within the parameters set by Allāh ta‘ālā and His Rasūl sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam for those circumstances. In a favourable situation, he will ensure he is grateful to Allāh ta‘ālā by not violating any of His Commands, whilst in adversity, he will exercise patience and act accordingly. As a result, he will acquire the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā in both situations, hence the adversity will also prove to be a blessing for him.
Positive Aspects of Illness
If we analyse the situation of a person afflicted with illness, we do not find him at any disadvantage in the pursuit of his objective, the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā. Rather, we will conclude that he has a greater advantage than those in privileged circumstances. Let us look at some of the benefits that a sick person acquires when he becomes ill.
1. Special Blessings, Mercies and Guidance from Allāh ta‘ālā
Allāh ta‘ālā states,
…And give glad tidings to those who exercise patience, those who, when any difficulty befalls them, say, “Indeed, we belong to Allāh, and to Him we will return.” Those are the ones upon whom there are (special) blessings from their Rabb, and mercy; and those are the ones who are rightly guided. (2:155-57)
As is apparent from the above verse, one who exercises patience during illness or adversity and says ‘innā lillāhi wa innā ilayhi rāji‘ūn’, he will receive special blessings from Allāh ta‘ālā as well as general mercies and Allāh ta‘ālā will increase him in hidāyah (guidance) too.
2. Expiation of Sins
In one Hadīth, Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has stated,
Do not speak ill of fever, for it gets rid of the sins of the children of Ādam just as the furnace gets rid of the impurities from iron. (Muslim)
In another Hadīth, a Sahābī radhiyallāhu ‘anhu commented regarding a person who had passed away, ‘Glad tidings for him that he died without becoming ill.’ Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam replied,
Woe to you! What do you know? It is possible that had Allāh afflicted him with an illness, He would have forgiven his sins through its medium. (Al-Muwattā, Imām Mālik rahimahullāh)
3. A High Status in the Court of Allāh ta‘ālā
Many virtues have been mentioned with regards to those people who visit the sick. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has said,
No Muslim visits another sick Muslim in the morning except that seventy thousand angels pray for his forgiveness until the evening, and he does not visit him in the evening except that seventy thousand angels ask for his forgiveness until the morning. And for him will be an orchard in Jannah. (At-Tirmidhī)
Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has also said,
Whoever visits a sick person, a caller (angel) calls out from the heavens, “You are pure and pure is your walking, and you have made for yourself an abode in Jannah.” (Ibn Mājah)
If such are the virtues for those who visit the sick, then what status must the sick person hold in the Court of Allāh ta‘ālā?
4. A Sign of Goodness
Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has stated,
The person for whom Allāh desires goodness, he is afflicted. (Al-Bukhārī)
5. Award of Jannah
Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has stated,
Allāh ta‘ālā states, “When I test my servant by (taking away) his eyesight and he remains patient, I give him Jannah in return.” (At-Tirmidhī)
Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has stated,
The one who dies due to an illness in the stomach is a martyr, and the one who dies due to a plague is a martyr. (Al-Bukhārī)
7. Proximity to Allāh ta‘ālā
Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has stated,
Indeed, Allāh ta‘ālā will say on the Day of Judgement, “O son of Ādam! I was ill and you did not visit me?” He will say, “How could I have visited you when you are the Rabb of the all the worlds?” (meaning how could You have become ill?) He will say, “Did you not know that a certain servant of Mine was ill and you did not visit him? Did you not know that had you visited him, you would have found Me by his side?”… (Muslim)
8. Reward Beyond Measure
Allāh ta‘ālā states,
Indeed, those who observe patience will be given their reward in full without measure. (39:10)
Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has stated,
When those who endured difficulties (in the world) will be given (their) reward (for exercising patience), those who were given safety will wish that their skin was cut up with scissors in the world (so that they too would have become deserving of that reward). (At-Tirmidhī)
If one is ill himself or if someone in his family is ill, then he should make du‘ā for the removal of the illness, spend in charity and also resort to medicine, but one should not fear illness or have a disliking for it. When there are so many Dīnī benefits for those who are afflicted with adversity or illness, then surely, it should be recognised as a blessing in disguise.
Making Du‘ā for the Removal of Illness
A question may arise in a person’s mind that if illness is such a great blessing, then why should we want to make du‘ā or resort to medicine for its cure? In this regard, I would like to mention an incident:
Hadrat Mawlānā Ashraf ‘Alī Thānwī rahimahullāh narrates that the great spiritual mentor, Hadrat Hājī Imdādullāh rahimahullāh was once discussing the positive aspects of illnesses. Coincidentally, a person came to request Hadrat to make du‘ā for his wife who was ill. Hadrat Thānwī rahimahullāh mentions that I thought to myself, ‘How will Hadrat make du‘ā for the lady as this will entail asking Allāh ta‘ālā to take away a blessing granted by Him?’
Hadrat Mawlānā Ashraf ‘Alī Thānwī rahimahullāh says that Hadrat Hājī Imdādullāh rahimahullāh supplicated: O Allāh! Health is a blessing and illness is also a blessing; however, we are incapable of enduring the blessing of illness, so change it with the blessing of health which we are able to endure (happily).
In conclusion, a believer should always keep acquiring the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā in mind and regard every situation and circumstance a blessing from Allāh ta‘ālā. Surely, no situation will be an adversity for him if he learns to face it in the correct manner. Hence, the current pandemic of Coronavirus should also not over-concern a believer. A person should take all preventive measures and thereafter if he remains safe, alhamdulillāh, and if he is afflicted then too, alhamdulillāh, as he will be blessed with numerous Dīnī benefits that he will reap in this world and the Hereafter.
Extracted from Riyāḍul Jannah, Vol. 29 No. 4/5, 2020
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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
14th Jumādal-Ākhirah 1441 AH ~ Saturday 8th February 2020
By Shaykhul-Hadīth, Hadrat Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh
Recently two close members of my family departed to meet the Creator (this article was written in April 2018): my aunt being my father’s first cousin; and my nephew, who unexpectedly departed at the age of 44. May Allāh ta‘ālā forgive them and grant them entry into Jannatul-Firdaws, Āmīn.
During moments of both joy and grief, we have been provided with guidelines by our beloved Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam which we need to follow, in order to be rewarded by Allāh ta‘ālā. On the occasion of a bereavement, we need to pay attention to certain points related to bathing, shrouding and burying the deceased:
• The injunction of hijāb should be observed by every Muslim male and female. It should be observed in one’s lifetime and also when someone passes away, from the moment of death, during the bathing and shrouding and until after the burial. Non-mahrams of the deceased should not view the deceased.
• It is more virtuous and better to give ghusl to the deceased as soon as possible. It is common practice to first fix the time of the burial and thereafter give ghusl as per our convenience. The practice which needs to be adopted is that the custodians of the deceased should focus on bathing and shrouding the deceased as soon as the person passes away, whilst simultaneously making arrangements for the burial.
• Before giving ghusl, those giving ghusl should go through the procedure of giving ghusl to the deceased and not rely on their own knowledge. It is not every day that we give ghusl to the deceased, so many a time even those who regularly give ghusl also become habituated to adopting an incorrect method which afterwards becomes their norm, assuming that it is correct. Similarly, the ‘Ulamā only get the opportunity to give ghusl once in a while as well and so can also be prone to mistakes. Therefore, everybody should refer to simple books of fiqh and go through the method of giving ghusl; thereafter, give ghusl according to the correct method trying utmost to carry out as many sunnah and mustahabb as possible. (Inshā’allāh the IDA will soon publish a leaflet, detailing the method of how to bathe the deceased.)
• When giving ghusl to the deceased, the cloth used to cover the body of the deceased should be dark in colour like black, brown or blue, so the body of the deceased does not become visible even after the cloth becomes wet.
• It is sunnah to apply perfume to the deceased. The method for this is to apply camphor upon those limbs and parts of the body which touch the ground during Salāh in prostration. ‘Itr (perfume) will be applied to the beard and the hair of the head for males and only to the hair of the head for females.
• When lifting the deceased people normally recite Shahādah loudly and some people encourage others to do so as well. This is makrūh. One should remain engaged in silent dhikr of their preference and ponder over the situation which the deceased is to face soon and make du‘ā accordingly.
• In the presence of the deceased, the Glorious Qur’ān can be recited silently or audibly if the ghusl has taken place. However, if the ghusl is yet to take place, it will be permissible to recite the Qur’ān audibly near the deceased if the body is totally covered from head to toe, or if one recites at a distance from the deceased. If the body is not fully covered, the Qur’ān may be recited silently near the deceased. However, the Qur’ān should not be recited if any impurities are upon or around the deceased. Similarly, Qur’ān should not be recited whilst in the bathing area whilst the ghusl is taking place.
• The viewing of the face of the deceased before the Janāzah Salāh is contrary to Islamic teachings if it leads to a delay in the performance of Janāzah Salāh, resulting in a delay in the burial. From this it is concluded that it is also contrary to Islamic teachings to view the face of the deceased after the Janāzah Salāh, as this will definitely lead to a delay in the burial. Some ‘Ulamā are of the opinion that this practice should be discarded completely as it can lead to other wrongs, such as people taking photos of the deceased.
• Sometimes close relatives, such as a son, hold on to the Janāzah throughout. This is against the Sunnah method. Similarly, it is preferred to walk behind the Janāzah; it is ok for a few people to be slightly ahead of the Janāzah. Moreover, for the majority to proceed ahead of the Janāzah is makrūh.
• Those who are going to participate in the Janāzah Salāh, should go through the method of performing Janāzah Salāh and in particular understand the necessary requisites of Janāzah Salāh. (Inshā’allāh a leaflet will soon be available from the IDA.)
• The followers should say the takbīrāt during the Janāzah Salāh softly.
• Those who participate in Janāzah Salāh should go with sincerity, only for the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā and with the aim to acquire the reward that He has promised. Participating in Janāzah Salāh and burial only to show one’s presence is contrary to the teachings of Islām.
• Dignity should be maintained before and after the Janāzah Salāh, whilst the burial is taking place and after the burial. People should not make noise and talk about worldly matters; they should avoid meeting and greeting each other; complete focus should be on the success of the deceased in the grave. Everyone should continue to busy themselves in dhikrullāh and recitation of the Glorious Qur’ān, passing its reward to the deceased and continually asking Allāh ta‘ālā to forgive the deceased.
• It is preferable to bury the deceased without a coffin; not to benefit from this facility where it is available and to bury the deceased in a coffin is lamentable. However, in conditions where there is excessive moisture in the soil, a coffin may be used.
• The whole body of the deceased should be turned towards the Qiblah, not only the face. The body should be turned to its right, and if possible, supported against the wall of the grave towards the Qiblah side. If required, soil can be placed to support the back of the deceased.
• Many a time, the filling of the grave is done by using a digger. Those present should wholeheartedly participate and fill the grave with their hands or by using spades.
• After the burial it is mustahabb to recite the beginning verses of Sūrah Al-Baqarah at the head and the final verses of Sūrah Al-Baqarah at the feet of the grave, as was the practice of Sayyidunā Ibn ‘Umar radhiyallāhu ‘anhu. However, this practice should be left out now and then, so that people do not deem it to be necessary. The Glorious Qur’ān is recited to attract the Mercy of Allāh ta‘ālā through which it is hoped that the deceased will be saved from punishment of the grave. Similarly, the recitation of the Qur’ān is a means of solace and comfort for the deceased, along with its reward being a blessing for him. For these reasons, the gathering can recite any portion of the Qur’ān. Furthermore, after the burial all forms of adhkār and du‘ā are permissible; to deem a certain form of dhikr or portion of the Qur’ān to be necessary is incorrect.
• As mentioned above, the recitation of Sūrah Al-Baqarah, or any other portion of the Glorious Qur’ān, is for the benefit of the deceased and not for the gathering. Therefore, it is not necessary for the recitation to be so loud that it reaches the whole gathering. Some ‘Ulamā are of the opinion that these verses should be recited silently. From this it can be understood that microphones are not required for this purpose; rather it is better to discard the use of microphones.
• Congregational du‘ā after the burial is permissible, but not necessary. This practice should also be left out at times. Similarly, there is no need for du‘ā after the burial of a child, as it is sinless.
• After the burial, people pay a lot of attention to bettering the grave and others busy themselves comforting the near and dear ones; as a result they become negligent of the deceased. It is desirable after the burial, for the near and dear ones to stand around the grave for a while and recite the Qur’ān or engage in adhkār and du‘ā for the deceased. Mullā ‘Alī Al-Qārī rahimahullāh has stated that each person should try to recite Sūrah Yāsīn after the burial.
• Sprinkling water over the grave after the burial to settle the soil is mustahabb. To deem it necessary is incorrect.
• The cost of the burial is the responsibility of the deceased, and so will be taken from his estate, except in case of a wife, for whom the burial costs are borne by the husband. However, the relatives and well-wishers who come for the funeral are not the guests of the deceased and are not his responsibility. The cost of the food for the guests can only be paid from the estate of the deceased, if all the inheritors are bāligh (mature) and they wholeheartedly give permission.
• Those attending the burial should try to make their own arrangements for food, as on such occasions we should not become a burden on those who are grieving.
• It is mustahabb for the relatives and the near and dear ones to feed the family of the deceased for one day, and according to some ‘Ulamā, a maximum of three days. However, it is a matter of concern that this beautiful sunnah of assisting and helping those in grief sometimes takes the form of a feast, where 50 to 100 people are invited and many times it goes beyond Shar‘ī limits too.
• The leaflet, “Ta‘ziyah: The Sunnah Method of Consoling the Bereaved”, and the booklet, “Inheritance in Islām”, both published by the Islāmic Da‘wah Academy (www.idauk.org), should be read by every individual.
May Allah ta‘ālā grant us all the ability to practice. Āmīn.
© Riyādul Jannah (Vol. 27 No. 3)
|We are witnessing an era where Islām, in spite of its vastness and applicability in every sphere of the human life, has been confined to mere beliefs and a handful of rituals. As with some other important obligations of Islām, the obligation of ensuring the correct procedures in the field of inheritance has also been subjected to gross disregard and outright neglect. In fact, this section of Dīn can be said to be the most neglected one among all. Seeing such state of affairs, the respected Shaykh hafizahullāh embarked on the task of acquainting the Muslims on the importance of this vital duty. The lectures delivered proved to be highly informative and beneficial, but only to a limited audience. In order to extend the benefits to a larger part of the Ummah, it was decided that two of these lectures be selected and published in booklet form. (34 pages p/b + Islamic will template) £1.00A few topics mentioned in the booklet are as follows:• Equality in inheritance
• What can be drawn from the estate
• The importance of drawing up a will
• Causes of incorrect wills
• Criteria for wasiyyah (bequest)
• What to do following a death
• Common errors and customs
|To order the above book or for details of our other publications, please email email@example.com or call 0116 262 5440.
• Please forward this message on to all your contacts •
by Shaikhul Hadith Mufti Ebrahim Saheb Desai
Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ismail ibn Ebrahim ibn Mugira ibn Bardizba Al Ju’fi Al Bukhari.
2. Birth and Lineage
Born on Friday (after Jumuah) 13 Shawwal 194 A.H. Passed away on Friday 1 Shawwal 256 A.H. (the night before Eid-ul-Fitr) (Hadyus Saari – pg.477).
Bardizba was a fire worshipper. His son Mugira accepted Islam on the hands of Ju’fi the governor of Bukhara. That is why the name Ju’fi appears at the end of his name. There is not much mention about Imam Bukhari’s grandfather, Ebrahim. However, his father, Ismail, was a muhaddith and Ibn Hibban has rated him in the 4th category of reliable muhadditheen. He has narrated from Hammad ibn Zaid and Imam Malik. Abu Hafs Kabir says that he was present at the time of Ismails death when he heard him say: “I do not have a single dirham of doubt in my earnings.”
3. Abilities (Remarkable Memory)
When Imam Saheb was 11 years old, he was once at the lesson of Imaam Daakli and Imaam Daakhli narrated the following sanad: Sufyan from Abu Zubair from Ebrahim. Imaam Saheb said that this sanad is incorrect because Abu Zubair did not narrate from Ebrahim. When it was checked up, Imaam saheb was correct. (Hadyus Saari pg.478).
Hashid bin Ismail mentions that Imam Bukhari (R.A.) in his youth use to come to the Mashaaikh of Basra but he never used to write. After 16 days, we rebuked him for not writing down the notes (Ahadith). After a while, he said: “You have rebuked me enough – bring your kitabs.” Haashid says: “We brought our kitabs and Imam Saheb mentioned each and every hadith with their sanads and also corrected our kitabs and said: “You think I’m wasting my time!” (At that time there were over 15 000 Ahadith taken from those Mashaaikh of Basra) (Hadyus Saari pg.478).
Once Ishaaq bin Raah-weih mentioned that I know the 70 000 Ahadith mentioned in my book like I’m looking at them. When this was mentioned to Imam Bukhari (R.A.), he replied: “You are astonished at that, perhaps in this time and age, there are such people who know 200 000 Ahadith as mentioned in the kitaab (by this Imam Saheb was referring to himself) (Hadyus Saari pg.487).
Once when Imam Bukhari went to Baghdad, the muhadditheen got together and took 100 Ahadith and mixed up their sanads (chain of narrators) and matan (text). Thereafter 10 muhadditheen were appointed to present ten of these Ahadith each to him incorrectly. When each Hadith was presented, he replied each time with these words: “I don’t know this Hadith.” After all the Ahadith were presented to him, he mentioned each Hadith as it was narrated by those ten muhadditheen and then mentioned the correct version of each one (Hadyus Saari pg.486).
Abu Azhar (R.A.) says; “Once when Imam Bukhari (R.A.) came to Samarkand, 400 muhadditheen got together and mixed up the sanads of Iraq with Yemeni sanads and the sanads of the Haram with the Yemeni sanads in trying to make Imam Saheb commit a mistake, but not one mistake was taken out by anyone of the 400 muhadditheen.
Imam Bukhari (R.A.) said he has more than 1000 Ustaads. He knows the chain of narrators of every Hadith from every Ustaad. Ibn Hajar has categorized Bukhari’s Ustaads into 5 groups:
- Contemporaries of Tabi’een but did not narrate.
- Heard from elderly Tabi’een.
- Narrates from his colleagues who were his seniors.
- Narrates from his juniors.
90 000 people have heard the Bukhari Shareef directly from Imam Bukhari (Hadyus Saari pg.491).
Imam Bukhari (rahmatullahi alaih) invested his money of inheritance from his father’s estate and he should receive 500 dirhams monthly. All this used to be spent in attaining knowledge.
When he went to Adam ibn Abi Ayas there was a delay in receiving money – he ate grass, after 3 days somebody gave a bag of coins.
He got sick, his container of food was shown to doctors, they said this is like the Raahibs. Imam Bukhari did not eat curry for 40 years. When people insisted, he accepted to have bread and sugar as curry.
7. Piety and Character
Imam Bukhari said: “From the time I knew backbiting is haraam I never spoke ill about anyone.”
The need once arose for Imam Bukhari (R.A.) to travel by sea. He had with him 1000 ashrafis (gold coins). While on the ship, he met a person who became very close to Imam Saheb. One day (while on the ship) that person began shouting when asked the reason for the shouting he mentioned that he had a thousand Ashrafis that were missing. While every passenger on the ship was being searched, Imam Bukhari (R.A.) threw his 1000 Ashrafis into the sea. After all the passengers on board were searched and the money not found, the people began rebuking that person. When the journey ended that person came to Imam Bukhari (R.A.) and enquired as to what he had done with the money. Imam Bukhari (R.A.) replied that he had thrown it into the sea. That person asked why he had borne such a huge loss. He replied: “Are you not aware that my entire life has been devoted to the Ahadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) and my authenticity is very renowned. I was not prepared to lose what I had earned my entire life because of a few gold coins.” (Zafrul Muhassileen – pg.103)
Whilst practising archery, the arrow hit a bridge and damaged it. He asked the owner for forgiveness and offered to repair it.
Abu Hafs Kabir sent goods to him which he promised to sell to somebody at a certain price. Others offered a higher price. He refused.
Imam Bukhari (R.A.) mentioned: “I did not write any Hadith in this book before taking a bath and performing 2 rakats and I deduced this kitab from 600,000 Ahadith in 16 years.
8. Imam Bukhari’s Mazhab
1). According to ibn Taimiyyah (R.A.), Imam Bukhari was a mujtahid and an independent Imam.
2). Allama Taqi’uddeen Subki has regarded him as a Shafi because he was the student of Humaidi, who was a Shafi. This conclusion is not correct because then Imam Bukhari should be regarded as a Hanafi in view of Ishaaq ibn Raahwa – Imam Bukhari’s Ustaad being a student of Abdullah ibn Mubarak and Abdullah ibn Mubarak was a Hanafi.
3). Ibn Qayyim (R.A.) says Imam Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawood were strong followers of Imam Ahmad ibn Hambal.
After studying and closely looking at Imam Bukhari one will realise that Imam Bukhari did not follow any one Imam, he has his independent views on many issues, therefore Allama Anwar Shah Kashmiri (R.A.) and Sheikh Zakaria (R.A.) have the same view as that of Allama Taimiyya that Imam Bukhari is a mujtahid.
Hazrath Moulana Fazlur Rahman is of the opinion that Imam Bukhari’s Usools (fundamental principles) is not known, it is difficult to regard him as an independent Imam and Mujtahid.
My humble view is that not knowing the Usool of any Imam is not a criterion to disqualify him from being a mujtahid, just as there were many other mujtahids other than the famous and commonly known 4 Imams. Their usools are not known, but they were mujtahids or else it would mean that there were only 4 mujtahids in this Ummat. Yes, one may say that since the usools of Imam Bukhari are not known, he cannot be followed, just as we cannot follow for eg. Sufyan Sawri, Sufyan Uyaina, etc. etc.
Imam Bukhari very frequently became a victim of differences and disputes and he breathed his last in that condition. He was expelled from Bukhara 4 times.
1st – When he issued a ruling that foster relationships are effective even by drinking goat and sheep milk. This was in his early days. There is speculation whether this incident is true or not.
2nd – Many Ulama of Bukhara held the opinion that Iman is not makhlooq, because of that those Ulama had to leave Bukhara. Imam Bukhari was also amongst them.
3rd – After his experience with Imam Zuhli in Nishapur, Zuhli wrote to the Ameer of Bukhara complaining about Imam Bukhari which resulted in his expulsion.
Concerning the dispute with Imam Zuhli in Nishapur – When Imam Bukhari came to Nishapur he was very warmly welcomed and Imam zuhli, who was also the Ustaad of Imam Bukhari, encouraged the people to benefit and listen to ahadith from Imam Bukhari. Once somebody asked the question whether Kalamullah is makhlooq or not. Imam tried to evade the question but upon insisting he answered that Kalamullah is not makhlooq but our reciting the kalamullah is maqluq. People did not fully understand this and made an issue that Imam Bukhari says that “lafzi bilquran maklooq.” Imam Zuhli said, He (Imam Bukhari) is a bid’ati and no one should go to him. People left Imam Bukhari (R.A.) except Imam Muslim and Ahmad ibn Salama. Zuhli did not allow any person who subscribe to Imam Bukhari’s view or associated with him to sit in his lesson. Imam Muslim and Ahmad ibn Salama chose to be with Imam Bukhari. A few days later Imam Bukhari left Nishapur and went to Bukhara and was expelled from there. This was the third time he was expelled from Bukhara. There is some speculation that when Imam Bukhari began having discourses in Nishapur, Zuhli’s discourses were not largely attended hence Zuhli initiated Imam Bukhari’s removal from Bukhara. And Allah Ta’ala knows best
4th – Imam Bukhari was called to Bukhara and he received a very large reception. Ameer of Bukhara, Khalid Zuhli asked him to come to his place and teach his children Bukhari Shareef. Imam Bukhari refused and Khalid then used people to make objections on Imam Bukhari’s beliefs and thus he was finally expelled from Bukhara. Imam Bukhari cursed Khalid and within a month Khalid was dismissed and imprisoned.
After Imam Bukhari was removed for the fourth time by Khalid. He went to Khatang (today Khaja Abad) by his relatives. Abdul Quddus (R.A.) says that I heard Imam Bukhari making dua in tahajjud: “O Allah, the earth has become narrow for me despite its spaciousness, therefore call me to you.”
Gaalib ibn Jibraeel says – I was in Khartang when people of Samarqand sent a messenger to propose and invite Imam Bukhari to Samarqand. Imam Bukhari got ready to go and after walking about 20 steps he felt weak and lied down and breathed his last. This was on the night of Eid – 256 A.H. After his death, musk scent emitted from his grave. His opponents came to the grave to make tawbah. Upon his death, 2 persons saw a dream in which he made ziyarah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) and the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) and they were waiting for somebody. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said that they are waiting for Imam Bukhari.
10. IMAAM BUKHARI AND THE HANAFIS
Imam Bukhari’s family and friendly ties with Abu Hafs Kabir’s family.
Imam Bukhari was a student of Abu Hafs Kabir, he made sima of Jami Sufyan from him. Even after that Imam Bukhari and Abu Hafs Sagheer (Kabirs son) were contemporaries and colleagues in studying. It is obvious that because of Imam Bukhari and his family being close to Abu Haf’s family (Abu Hafs used to render financial help to Imam Bukhari) he was aware of the fiqh of the Ahnaaf.
In fact he first studied all the books of Abdulla ibn Mubarak who was a student of Abu Hanifa and member of the fiqh shura committee of the Ahnaaf.
However later in life when Imam Bukhari came into contact with Imam Humaidi and Nuaim Khuzaaie, who were very strongly opposed to the Ahnaaf – he too was influenced by their anti-Ahnaaf attitude.
11. Writings and Other Compilations
Imam Bukhari wrote many kitabs besides Bukhari Shareef (Al Jamius Sahih). Hereunder are some books which are written by Imam Bukhari
- Al Aadaabul Mufrad
- Juz – Raf-e-Yadain
- Juz – Qiraat-Kalful-Imam
- At-Taareekh-Al Kabeer – Al Awsat-As Sageer
- Kitabul Ashribah
- Kitabul Hibah
- Kitabul Ilal
- Kitabul Wuhdaan
- 10. Af’aalul Ibaad
11. ABOUT HIS BOOK AL-JAMIUS-SAHIH
Motivating factors of compiling Bukhari Shareef,
There were many books written on hadith but there were mixtures of Sahih and Daeef ahadith. Imam Bukhari felt that there should be a compilation of only Sahih ahadith. Once while sitting in the gathering of Ishaaq ibn Raahwai he (Ishaq) expressed his wish that a book of Sahih ahadith be compiled, when he heard this, his feeling of compiling such a book was strengthened and this was later consolidated with a dream wherein he (Imam Bukhari) saw a dream that he was waving away flies from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) with a fan. The dream was interpreted as Imam Bukhari will sift out the fabricated Ahadith form the authentic Ahadith.
The dominant purpose of compiling Bukhari Shareef from the motivating factors was to compile and gather only Sahih ahadith. Apart from that, Imam Bukhari designed and brightened his book with other aspects as well, for eg., he would deduce fiqhi aspects from the hadith, he would express the authenticity of the hadith by presenting another sanad (chain of narrators). He also explains the meaning of many ahadith etc. It is due to the above factors that the hadith in Bukhari Shareef are not in a subject or topic sequence. However, Imam Muslim has arranged and compiled his book according to a topic sequence.
13. Specialities of Bukhari Shareef
1. It is the first book compiled only on Sahih ahadith.
2. It took the author 16 years to compile his book. The tarajims (topics) were prepared at the Rawdhah Mubarak.
3. Abu Zaid Mirwazi Shafi, who was a very fond shafi was sleeping in the mataaf area when he made ziyarat of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi wasallam) who asked him, why do you not make research and read my book. Abu Zaid asked: “O Prophet of Allah which is your book?” Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) replied the book of Muhammad ibn Ismail ie. Bukhari Shareef.
4. When reading at the time of difficulties and hardships, matters are made easy.
When read in a boat it does not sink.
5. There are 22 Sulusiyyaats in Bukhari Shareef. However, Darami has more sulusiyyaats than Bukhari Shareef.
14. Conditions of Choosing a Hadith
Muhammad Maqdasi says that the conditions of choosing a hadith in Bukhari Shareef are not mentioned by the author himself. The muhadditheen have pondered and studied the book and deduced these conditions, presuming they were the criteria set out by the author. Tahir Maqdasi says that the conditions of choosing a hadith in Bukhari Shareef are:
- The narrator is unanimously reliable. Here a question may arise as to why is there discussions on the reliability and authenticity of many narrators in Bukhari Shareef. Ibn Humam has answered this that certifying a narrator as reliable or unreliable is not absolute (qat’ie). A muhaddith certifies according to his understanding and research.
- The chain of narrators must be an unbroken one (itti’saal – see page five).
- If two narrators narrate from every narrator it is better but not a condition.
- Haakim, author of Mustadrak says it is a condition of Bukhari Shareef that there always be two narrators from a narrator. This is not correct. The first and last hadith indicates that even narrations with one narrator is accepted. In fact, there are about 200 such ahadith in Bukhari Shareef. Ziya Maqdasi has prepared a book Galaaibus Sahihain on this matter.
Hereunder is a more clear explanation as to what type of narrators are chosen by Imam Bukhari.
Imam Zuhri has five Islam & Muslims of students:
- Very reliable in memory and authenticity and always or for a very long time stayed in the company of Imam Zuhri.
- Also very reliable but stayed lesser than the first group.
- Stayed with Zuhri but were criticized by some.
- Did not stay with Zuhri and were criticized by some.
- Weak and unknown narrators.
Imam Bukhari took narrators of the first category, seldom would he take from the second category. Imam Muslim would take from the third category as well.
Abu Dawood and Nasai would take from the third category.
Tirmizi from the fourth category, Tirmizi is more superior to Abu Dawood because he discusses the reason a hadith is weak, etc.
Imam Abu Dawood uses the fifth category to support and consolidate. (Read after the section on itti’saal.)
A question arises that if according to Imam Bukhari, the chain of narrators must be an unbroken one, why are there ahadith-e-muanan (hadith with an-an).
According to Imam Bukhari for a hadith muanan to be under the category of unbroken chain of narrators, the narrator and from whom he is narrating must be contemporaries and must meet at least once.
In order to clearly understand the above, the following must be understood:
The narrator and from whom he is narrating, if they are not contemporaries, such a narration is named as Irsaale Jali.
If they are contemporaries but they did not meet, this is called Irsaale Khafi.
If they are contemporaries, met but narrates something he did not hear, this is Tadlees.
According to Imam Bukhari, the two must meet at least once. According to Muslim, merely being contemporaries is sufficient. Imam Bukhari views this as a possibility of being Irsaal, hence the narration will not be of an unbroken chain (muttasal).
One may raise an objection that according to Imam Bukhari, meeting once is sufficient, but still, there is a possibility of non-narration. The answer is that we are discussing a narrator who does not practice Tadlees. A mudallis’s narration is not muttasil, hence disqualifies from being accepted.
In the light of the above discussion, it is clear that Bukhari shareef is more superior to Muslim or any other book on hadith. Dare Qutni says:
The statement of Abu Ali Nishapuri: “There is no other kitaab on the surface of this earth more sahih than Muslim Shareef,” is opposed by Nishapuri’s Ustaad, Imam Nasai, who said there is no better book than Bukhari Shareef.
However, it must be noted that the superiority of Bukhari Shareef over Muslim Shareef and other books of ahadith is on a general basis, not that every hadith of Bukhari Shareef is more superior to any hadith in any other book of hadith.
15. The Topics (Taraajim) of Bukhari Shareef
- Sometimes the purpose of Imam Bukhari is not literal. He says something and means isharatun-nas or dalatun-nas.
- Imam Bukhari does not repeat a topic if so the purpose is different.
- Generally, the topic is like a claim and the ahadith follow it as proof, but in many instances, he means to explain the meaning of the following hadith.
- A tarjuma sometimes has two meanings, clear and unclear. People think and assume the clear meaning, hence they experience difficulty in reconciling the topic with the hadith, whereas the unclear meaning is the purpose of Imam Bukhari.
- Sometimes there is no link between the topic and hadith quoted under it, but the hadith with that link is nearby, if not further in the kitab, or maybe it is not in Bukhari Shareef, because it does not conform with the conditions of Bukhari Shareef.
- Sometimes with the topic, Imam Bukhari quotes sayings of sahaba and tabi’een (radhiallahu anhum), but those sayings have no direct relevance.
- Sometimes there is a baab but no hadith under the baab. The reason for this is that the hadith is somewhat related to the previous baab, just like the fasal of the fuqaha. Imam Bukhari’s purpose is also probably to sharpen the brain, that one ponders in the hadith and deduce some valid point.
- Sometimes there is a tarjama but no hadith under it. This is of different types:
Either there are verses of quran after the topic, or the verses are part of the topic. In the above two, the verses are sufficient substantiations. However if there is a topic and no verse or hadith, the reason is either that the hadith is not in conformity with the conditions set out by Imam Bukhari or the hadith is mentioned elsewhere and to avoid exact repetition, he did not mention it or for sharpening the brains, that one ponders over a hadith to substantiate.
- Sometimes a topic is mentioned twice, the purpose of the second is to elaborate on the first one.
10. Sometimes such a topic is mentioned that does not need any explanation but he brings it to refute an opinion of some muhaddith. This is common in Bukhari Shareef against Musannaf Abdur Razzak and Ibn Abi Shaiba.
16. Repetitions in Bukhari Shareef
Generally, Imam Bukhari repeats a hadith but with a different chain of narrators or different words. However, there are about 21 or 22 places in Bukhari Shareef wherein there are exact (sanad or words) repeated. This is indeed a very negligent number in comparison to the vast number of ahadith in Bukhari Shareef. However, where a hadith is repeated but with a different chain of narrators or different words, the benefits of reporting them are:
- When one sahabi narrates a hadith, that same hadith is narrated by another sahabi, the purpose of quoting the other sahabi’s narration is to remove the misconception of non-familiarity (garaabat).
- One narrator quotes the hadith short, the other complete, Imam Bukhari quotes both as narrated by the narrators.
- A hadith is narrated with different words, for every change of word he brings a different topic and repeats it.
- If there are two possibilities in one narration, of broken and unbroken chain of narrators (muttasil and ghair muttasil) Imam Bukhari quotes both possibilities to indicate that the irsaal does not prevent the itti’saal’s acceptance.
- Similarly, if there are two possibilities, of dependant (mawkuuf) and complete (marfu) narrations.
- In some chain of narrators, if there is an addition, Imam Bukhari brings both versions to show that both are correct.
- One narration is muanan, the other chain expresses meeting, Imam Bukhari brings both to remove doubt.
17. Important Books related to Bukhari Shareef
- Aini (762-855 A.H.) – He wrote his sharah (commentary) over a period of 27 years. This sharah consists of 25 volumes. In this meanings of the words in the hadith are given and the link between the topic (baab) and hadith and many other aspects.
- Fathul Baari (Ibn Hajar Asqalani 773 – 852 A.H.) – This sharah was written over a period of 25 years. It consists of 13 volumes. Before this sharah, Ibn Hajar wrote (Alhadyus Saari) an introduction to Bukhari Shareef and Taghleequt-Taaleeq. After Aini wrote his sharah, Ibn Hajar wrote Intiqaasul I’tiraaz to answer Ainis objections. In Aini and Fathul Baari, there are answers of the same objections by one another. This was also due to some students eg. Burhaan ibn Khizar attending both discourses and informing both of them accordingly. However both the sharah have their own beauties and positive features, but Aini is easier to refer to and understood quickly, due to its concise and orderly fashion.
- Irshaadus Saari (851- 923 A.H. Qastalani) – This sharah is also known as Sharah Qastalani. This sharah is a synopsis of the above two sharahs.
- Alkawaakibud-daraari (Allama Kirmaani 717-786 A.H.) – The author was sleeping by the kaba and there he was inspired to keep this name for his sharah.
- Faizul Baari (Allama Badre Aalam) – Has written the main points from Allama Anwar Shah Kashmiris lessons in Bukhari Shareef.
- Alabwaab Wat-taraajim (Hazrath Sheikh Zakariyya) – This is a must reference for Abwaab as well as other important discussions.
- Laamiud Daraari – (Moulana Yahya Saheb) noted the points from Hazrath Moulana Rashid Ahmed Gangohi’s discourses of Bukhari Shareef.
You may refer to the following books for an in-depth understanding on the issue of Taqleed (following a particular Madhab).
1- The legal status of following a Mazhab by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani
2- Differences of the Imams by Sheikhul Hadeeth Moulana Zakariyya (Rahmatullahi Alayhi)
“Be fearful of a day when you shall be returned to Allah, then every person shall be paid in full what he has earned, and they shall not be wronged.” Surah Baqarah
(This is the last verse to be revealed in the Qur’an)
The passing away of our most beloved and honourable Shaykh and Ustadh, the Ameer, the Master, the embodiment of Hadith, Shaykhul Hadith Hadhrat Mawlana Muhammad Yunus Saheb Jawnpuri (Allah sanctify his secret), was most definitely news that shook our hearts, rather shook mountains. Initially, I did not think it was befitting for me to write anything on Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret), as many of my senior teachers and Ulama had already done so. But after reading them, a few anecdotes and memories came to mind so I decided to share them based on the Hadith:
Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him narrated that: The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “Mention good things about your dead, and refrain from (mentioning) their evil.” (Tirmidhi)
Alhumdu Lillah, in 2007 my late father sent me to Mazahirul Uloom, Sahanrapur in the khidmah of Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret), as he felt it was good for an Alim to be in the company of a Shaykh after graduation for Islah and Tarbiyyah purposes. I had met Shaykh Saheb when he would come to Jamiatul Ilm Walhuda, Blackburn, for the Bukhari Jalsa and had heard many stories of his status and nature from my Ustadhs – many of which had studied under Shaykh Saheb’s tutelage.
When I first arrived, I introduced myself and passed on some money and gifts I had from our principal and ustadh Mufti AbdusSamad Saheb and Mufti Shabbir Saheb, as well as some of Shaykh Saheb’s previous students. I told him my father had sent me for his Khidmah and I was studying Ifta alongside this. I remember he asked me, if I was his guest (mehman) or a guest of the Darul Uloom. I said, “I am currently staying in the Mehman Khana until my room is arranged, so I shall eat from the Madrasah.” He said, “Very well! Otherwise I would arrange food for you.” To which I was quite overwhelmed and humbled, at Shaykh Saheb’s worry and concern.
In my first few days I imagined there would be dozens of people at his service and I would barely get a chance. As this was the case when he came to the UK, scores of Ulama from up and down the country would be following him “throughout” his stay in the UK. Things were quite different in India. Generally, it was some of the Bukhari/Ifta students that would do his Khidmah, but a very small amount. As they were in fear of being rebuked and told off. There were many days Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) would be alone or just one Khadim with him. I remember telling some of my Ifta colleagues, actually forcing them to come with me and sit with Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) for a while. They were very apprehensive. But I realised the cause behind this, it was what they were fed about Shaykh Saheb’s (Allah sanctify his secret) nature. Without doubt Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) was a person whose nature left you full of awe, he was “Jalali.” So generally, students were afraid of being told off and criticised. Shaykh Saheb would rebuke us. But he would always say, “I only discipline those with whom I have a connection, the person is fortunate who builds humility after I have disciplined him.”
I would like to mention a point here for ulama, we should never think of ourselves too high that we cannot be criticised. Fudhayl ibn Iyadh (Allah have mercy upon him) once said, “Accept the truth, even if it is from a child.”
I remember Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) would start the day off with Surah Yaseen and also read Qur’an after Dhuhr Salah. He would say, “I like to start the day off with Qur’an.” There was a particular Durood he would read after recitation of the Qur’an, I tried to pick up the words as Shaykh Saheb would whisper it quite loud. I only ever heard, “Allahumma Salle Alaa Muhammad bi Addadi Kulli Harf…” (O Allah! Send salutations upon Muhammad equal to every letter I have read from the Quran). If anyone knows the full Durood, I would be grateful if they could share it In Sha Allah.
I was once told to fetch some water by Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret), I knew in India they did not drink from the tap like we do in UK. But as it was my first few weeks, I was unaware where Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) drank from. Usually, people stored their water in a clay pot (matka) or something similar. So, I was running around in the kitchen and in the bedroom looking for his water storage. I ended up downstairs and I saw a student pumping water out from the Madrasah pump and I told him, Shaykh Saheb has asked for water. He said, Shaykh Saheb doesn’t drink this water and he only drinks Zam Zam. Subhan Allah! He rushed me back to the room and under the bed were drums of Zam Zam. I was grateful to him for sharing this with me as I didn’t want to feed Shaykh Saheb with normal water, when he only drank Zam Zam.
Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) did not like pretence and deception. Once a few students were sat and one of the students had a white scarf/shaal, like the ones we see in Saudi Arabia worn by their Imams. This student was sat in front of Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) whilst Shaykh Saheb was doing Dhikr. All of a sudden, Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) got really angry and said, “Oh! It’s only you… I thought you were a big Alim, the way you are dressed.” He ordered him to remove it and told us always to dress humbly.
Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) would cry at times, when putting on Itr before his dars. He would say, “These bottles are worth thousands of Rupees each. But when I was young I didn’t have enough money for food. Dear children, I went through a lot of poverty.” Tears would roll from his eyes, rahimahullah.
Further he would say many times, his father was a teacher and as a boy Shaykh Saheb was quite weak mentally and physically. He would always remain ill. A man suggested to his father, “Get him on the (cycle) rickshaws, as he will be of no use to you when he grows up. At least this way he will bring money in!” “Alhumdu Lillah! When I sit on the (cycle) rickshaws, the thought crosses my mind. It could have been the other way round!” Shaykh Saheb would say very emotionally.
“That is Allah’s grace which He bestows on whom He wills, He is the Owner of Mighty Grace.” (62:4)
NB: In Saharanpur there was little use of the motor rickshaws, a man would sit at the front and peddle. Passengers would sit at the back in a carriage. I don’t know if things have advanced.
Here I would like to clarify something which I heard from many students and teachers at my time in Saharanpur, that Shaykh Saheb was diagnosed with Tuberculosis at a young age. And TB was such in those days, if you caught it, chances were that you would die imminently. As a result of this Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) did not marry, due to fear of death occurring at any time. But time went by, he graduated as an Alim and even started teaching. He was always on edge, that he could go any minute. Like this he passed his whole youth, but one night he saw the number 5 in a dream (whether it was the figure 5 or a hand indicating 5 I cannot remember). This really confused Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret). He thought, “Maybe it means 5 days or 5 months, I have left to live!” Later, when Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) started teaching and came across the ‘maghaib khamsah’, the knowledge of five things which only Allah SWT knows. He understood the interpretation of the dream, which meant stop worrying about your death, only He SWT knows when you will die. The five things being, “Qiyamah, rainfall, what is in the womb – male/female, what a person earns – rizq, when a person will die.” (Surah Luqman)
This does not defy the fact that Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) had immense love for knowledge and his books, it would even be correct to say he was married to his books.
A similar incident is related regarding Imam Malik (Allah have mercy upon him) and the dream of the number 5.
Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) was connected to Ulama all over the UK and all over the world, he would often get calls of halaat/circumstances in certain countries. Especially, internal conflicts. As he knew I was from UK he once said, “When you return to the UK never get involved with Ikhtilaf/politics, as this is increasing in England.”
Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) was very wary when he was eating, with regards to evil eye (nazar). More often than not, he would prefer to eat alone and not in the sight of students or even guests from outside.
I remember asking Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) a few questions that had always been on my mind. The first was the Sunnah method of clipping the nails, as many books show a method which they refer to as Sunnah. He replied, “This is not in Hadith, but rather we begin from the right hand as this is preferable in all matters. Secondly, we begin from the Shahadah finger (index) as it is good to start with this finger.” I also asked about walking forty steps after food, He said, “This is only recommended by Hakims, it is not Sunnah.”
Approximately, half a million people attended Shaykh Saheb’s Janazah Salah:
Aishah (Allah be pleased with her) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, ‘If a Muslim dies and his funeral prayer is attended by a group of a hundred Muslims, and they all sincerely pray for his forgiveness, he is forgiven’”. (Ahmad, Muslim, and Tirmidhi)
Lastly, when Shaykh Saheb (Allah sanctify his secret) came to Jamiatul Ilm Walhuda in May 2017 for the Bukhari ceremony, towards the end I remember him saying, “O children! It is possible that I do not return next year.” And such was Allah’s wish…
“The Eyes Tear,
The Heart is in Pain,
But (with my tongue) I will only say that which is pleasing to Allah,
And we are indeed sad at your departure. ”
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) on the death of his son Ibraheem (Allah be pleased with him)
May Allah SWT elevate the status of Shaykh Saheb and Allah reward him on behalf of the whole Ummah and may his legacy remain in this world until the day of Qiyamah and Allah SWT grant us all the tawfeeq to follow in the footsteps of all the pious personalities and He resurrects us amongst them on the day of Qiyamah and He grant us a place in Jannah with such luminaries and pious Mashayikh… Ameen!
One request, please make Esaal-e-Thawab for Hadhrat of whatever you are able to and as much as you can; Qur’an, Dua, or Sadaqah. (I am hoping to build a Masjid in Shaykh’s name – please see link below and kindly donate).
Ismail ibn Nazir Satia (One who is in dire need of Allah’s forgiveness, mercy and pleasure).
26th Dhul Qa’dah 1438
Hadhrat Shaykh’s Teaching
Hadhrat Shaykhul Hadeeth Mawlana Islamul Haq Sahib RH, before his appointment as a Shaykhul Hadeeth of Bukhari Shareef at Darul Uloom, Holcombe, Bury, UK, taught Mishkaat Shareef at Madresa Ameeniya during the reign of Mufti Kifayatullah Sahib and gave lectures on Hadeeth at Darul Uloom, Rampura and Jamiah Hussainiya, Rander. He devoted his last fifteen years teaching Bukhari Shareef at Darul Uloom, Holcombe, Bury, UK. Despite his various illnesses, he participated in many public gatherings and made speeches at important functions. His vacations in the month of Ramadhan-ul-Mubarak were spent in Makkah Mukarrama and Madinah Munawwara (Al Haramayn Sharifayn), places he loved dearly, and many a times upon his return journey would visit Baitul Maqdis and Egypt.
The journey towards the beloved country.
This year (1996), although he was unwell and weak, he had the same determination and desire to take up the long and tiring journey and spend his holidays in the sacred places. Prior to his departure he was often heard saying, “My health is quiet bad and I have hardly any strength.” Nevertheless, on 18th January 1996, three days before Ramadhan-ul-Mubarak, he left his home in Bolton, U.K. and set off for the blessed journey with his youngest son Mawlana Nurul Haq. He spent a couple of days at his daughters house in London and during his stay managed to deliver a short speech at Balham Mosque, being his farewell speech. On Saturday 20th January 1996, after performing the Maghrib Salah and long Nawaafil, he bid farewell to his friends and relatives and left for Heathrow Airport. At the airport he felt very restless and repeatedly enquired about the sighting of the moon. Upon hearing of the sighting it brought him a lot of joy and then he relaxed. During the flight, although he felt tired and weak, he ate something for Sehri and kept the first fast of Ramadhan-ul-Mubarak.
Arriving at Makkah Mukarramah
After arriving at Makkah Mukarramah Hadhrat sahib joined the party from Darul Uloom who were staying at Darus Salaam Hotel. He was always so keen on performing Umrah that during his stay he would perform one a day and two on Fridays. However, on this occasion he could only manage one Umrah after three days when he felt better. He performed his prayers in Haram Sharif if he felt better, otherwise in his room, but the Taraweeh prayers were always performed in Haram Sharif whilst remaining seated.
In Makkah Mukarramah
In Makkah Mukarramah Hazrat sahib’s health deteriorated and he suffered from severe pains in the chest and had a fever. Doctor Shoaib Wajid of Durban, South Africa (May Allah reward him) was called who came immediately and prescribed some medication which gave him some relief. On the 17th of Ramadhan-ul-Mubarak Hadhrat sahib together with the Darul-Uloom party left Makkah Mukarramah and arrived in Madina Munawwarah (may Allah Ta’ala send his salutations and blessings upon its occupier).
The holy city of the Prophet
In Madina Munawwarah despite his ill-health, he performed Maghrib,Isha and Fajr Salah in Masjid-e Nabawi and spent his time between Asr and Maghreb salaah in front of the blessed tomb of Hadhrat Mohammed sending salutations. Again in Madina he suffered from severe pains in the chest which made him restless and was frequently heard saying “May Allah forgive me, Oh my Allah forgive me.” Seeing Hadhrat sahib in this state, the colleagues around him were contemplating to take him to hospital. Overhearing the conversation, Hadhrat sahib grievously and painfully said, “ The hospital staff will only delay my departing time.” It seems as if his instincts had indicated to him that his departure from this world had drawn near.Nevertheless, after the Isha prayer Hadhrat was taken to the hospital for medical check-up. X-rays were taken and after receiving some medicine to stabilize his condition he was discharged.
The last moments of Hadhrat Shaykh RH
The next few days Hadhrat continued his daily routine of going to Masjide Nabawi as and when he could. On the evening of 27th of Ramadhan-ul-Mubarak he returned to the hotel after the Taraweeh prayers and had some light refreshments. He looked fine and with the help of his son (Mawlana Nurul Haq ) packed all the luggage and said, “Nothing now remains to be packed for you except for the clothes that we are to remove on Eid day.” His son offered to massage his head but he refused and said, “ Go and have some rest.” So they both retired to bed at 4:15 a.m. His son immediately fell asleep and was awaken by the telephone call for sehri at 4:45 a.m. He got up, and to his amazement, did not see Hadhrat sahib on his bed. He looked around and saw Hadhrat sahib in the state of prostration (sajdah). He called, “Oh Father! Oh Father!” but to his disbelief he saw no movement nor did he hear any reply. It seems that he felt some pain in the stomach and sat on the floor as one would sit in qa’dah in salaah which was his usual habit. In this state his rooh (soul) was taken away due to which he fell forth in a position which seemed like a sajdah. Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Yusuf Motala Sahib (May Allah Ta’ala lengthen his life) was called who upon seeing Hazrat sahib declared that the blessed soul had departed and he had reached his beloved friend (Allah).
“ Inna Lillahi Wa Inna Ilayhi Raajioon.” ( We belong to Allah and to him we return).
It surely belongs to Allah Ta’ala what ever He takes and surely belongs to Allah Ta’ala what ever He gives. According to Him everything has a specified time. O Allah! Reward us in our calamity. We are pleased in turning towards our Creator. O Allah! Forgive him and shower mercy upon him and reside him in Paradise. Make his grave a Garden of Paradise. O Allah! Wash him with water and cleanse him from sins just as a white cloth is cleaned from dirtiness. O Allah! Keep him away from his sins at a distance of east and west. O Allah! Accept his coming to You and widen his entering place (grave) through Your mercy. O the Most Merciful, the Ever-lasting, the Greatest and the Most Honoured through the honour of our leader Muhammad O Allah! Do not lead us astray after him and do not deprive us of his reward and save us from falling in to mischief after him. Ameen. Please accept our prayer through the honour of our leader and Intercessor Muhammad .
Hadhrat Shaykhul Hadeeth Mawlana Islamul Haq Saheb departed from this world on the 28th of Ramadhan-ul-Mubarak at sehri time after completing 27 days of fasting. The night he passed away, he prayed salutation to the Prophet Muhammad two times which was against his normal practice of praying once only. His family members, relatives and close friends were notified immediately and within five minutes the news of his death spread like lightening. Special prayers were said, after Fajr Salah, in the mosques in Britain and the rest of the world.
Meanwhile, in Madinah Munawwarah the arrangements for the funeral were being made. Mawlana Nurul Haq, Yunus Bhai, Mawlana Zubair Malik and one of the organizers gave Hadhrat sahib a bath and prepared the body for burial. Just before Dhuhr salah the janazah was brought to Masjid-e-Nabwi and Shaykh ibn Zahim performed Namaze-Janazah after Dhuhr salah. The janazah was then taken to the graveyard (Janatul Baqee) to rest the blessed soul of Hadhrat Shaykhul Hadeeth. His son, Mawlana Nurul Haq stepped in to the grave to lay his body and pay his last respects. In reality Hadhrat rahmatullahi alaihe had much love and affection of both sacred places and a very strong desire to be buried in Janatul Baqee. Allah Ta’ala fulfilled his desire. All praises be to Him for this.
The great loss.
The loss of Hadhrat rahmatullahi alaihe in actual fact is a great calamity for myself, my brothers and sisters, in-laws, friends, relatives and the students and staff of Darul Uloom. We are all deprived of his valuable knowledge, spiritual bounties, beneficial suggestions, supplications, special considerations and not forgetting his limitless kindness. May Allah Ta’ala comfort us with the best of patience and favour us with special reward, as Allah Ta’ala is our real Cherisher and Guardian. My family members and I request all our elders and friends to pray for Hadhrat rahmatullahi alaihe’s increase of status and may Allah Ta’ala give us the divine strength to spread his knowledge, religious and spiritual bounties, Ameen.
By Mawlana Zia ul Haq
1. The clothes in which Hadhrat died held a special fragrance. It was not Hadhrat’s habit to use Itr (perfume). Also this smell was throughout the whole Qamees which is an indication that it was from the unseen. If Itr had been applied then the fragrance would have been in that one particular spot. The clothes are still available at Hadhrat’s house and can be observed by yourself. I think that this was an honour for Hadhrat and the barakah of teaching Ahadeeth throughout his entire life. The same is narrated regarding Imam Bukhari rahmatullahi alaihe that his grave produced such a strong pleasant fragrance that people started taking the soil away which resulted in the Ulama fencing his grave.
2. Various people have seen Hadhrat rahmatullahi alaihe in their dreams after his death.
Mawlana Yusuf Mamoon states that he saw in a dream that Hadhrat is looking like a young person and he is returning home at a great speed from Masjide Ar-Rahmaan, Bolton with a Tasbeeh in his hand. Mawlana Yusuf Mamoon asked, “Have you not died?” He replied, “No (I am still alive).”
Mawlana Yusuf Motala Saheb (Muddazillahu) gave an interpretation of this dream and stated that the ulama have said that seeing a person alive after his death means that he has achieved the status of martyrdom. The Quran states that,
“The martyrs are alive.” It should be noted that there are different grades of martyrdom as can be understood from the following Hadeeth:
The Prophet once asked the sahaba, “What is your understanding of martyrdom?” They replied, “Being killed in the path of Allah.” The prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “Then the martyrs of my ummah shall be very few. Being killed in the Path of Allah is martyrdom, death through illness in the stomach (and its surroundings) is martyrdom, death in fire is martyrdom, drowning is martyrdom, death due to the collapse of a building is martyrdom, death due to Pleurisy, a woman’s death in labour pains is martyrdom. (Nasai Vol.2 P.66).